Some conditions during pregnancy can threaten the baby in the womb and can cause permanent disability due to lack of sufficient development, and some cases can result with the death of the baby. Stating that fetal treatment is possible in the womb under experienced surgical teams thanks to new methods and technologies, Liv Hospital Perinatology Specialist Prof. Dr. Arda Lembet explained the closed fetal surgeries performed in the womb.
If urinary tract obstruction and especially very low level of amniotic fluid is detected in the fetus with detailed ultrasonography, serious problems can occur in pulmonary development after birth. This can seriously reduce the baby's chances of survival. In such cases, kidney functions of the baby is evaluated in the mother’s womb with the use of ultrasonographic assessment and bladder samples, and a shunt can be placed between the bladder and amniotic fluid in cases with preserved kidney function to resolve the obstruction and restore the amniotic fluid levels.
Fluid accumulation in the lungs is a serious problem
The other conditions where we apply fetal shunt in the womb include pleural effusion (fluid accumulation in the membrane surrounding the lung) and dense fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity called fetal ascites. In such cases, excess fluid accumulation can seriously impair the baby's health. The accumulated fluid is drained into amniotic fluid through a catheter to remove the compression on the baby, and in some cases this procedure can treat the condition itself. In addition, fetal medication and blood therapies can provide successful results in cases involving certain congenital pulmonary malformation and diaphragm herniation in the baby, and severe anemia or lack of thrombocytes in the fetus inside the womb.
Abnormalities in twin babies can be controlled
The most important anomaly observed in the womb for single twins is twin to twin transfusion syndrome and abnormalities in one baby. In the first scenario; excess blood can be supplied to one fetus, swelling the blood area and causing cardiac insufficiency; leading to significant drop in blood supply to the other fetus and these can pose serious risks in the womb depending on the severity of the disease. If these problems are left without intervention, they can result in pregnancy loss and high fetal loss, based on the severity of the disease. Successful results can be achieved by using fetoscopic method under ultrasonography for the ablation of the shared vessels between the twins or coagulation of the umbilical cord with bipolar forceps.