Microbiology is a discipline that examines the life conditions of microorganisms. Microorganisms cause various diseases in human body and they can be a member of flora on the body surface and various body parts, but they can also widely populate in various objects around us, air, water and soil.
Microbiology is a major discipline with many sub-branches. Therefore, it is regarded in various sub-groups. General microbiology deals with all sub-branches.
Microorganisms are unicellular organisms that are too small to be seen with naked eye. Bacteria, yeasts, molds, algae and protozoa are main microorganisms. Millions of cells grow from a single cell and they form visible colonies.
It is assumed that there are 500.000 – 6.000.000 different microorganisms in the world. To date, 3500 bacteria, 90.000 fungi (yeast, mold, fungus) and 100.000 protists (algae and protozoa) could be identified, which are considered to account for less than 5% of all microorganisms.
Bacteriology deals with isolating and identifying the bacteria that cause infection in human and determining their antibiotic susceptibilities. (Bacteria that cause typhoid fever, cholera and throat infection etc.)
Virology: the diagnostic tests for the viruses that cause disease in human body (HPV etc.)
Mycology means isolating and identifying the fungi that cause diseases in human body and testing their susceptibility for anti-fungal medicines.
Parasitology means investigating parasites and their eggs in stool, urine and other bodily fluids.
Serology: An antibody-based diagnostic method for infectious diseases.
Tests analyzed in microbiology laboratory
- Culture tests,
- Bacteria identification tests,
- Antibiotic and antifungal susceptibility tests,
- Antibiotic resistance analyses,
- Direct microscopic examinations,
- Stained preparations,
- Screening parasite egg in stool,
- Antigen screen tests,
- Antibody tests (serologic tests),
- PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)