Evaluation of Male
In couples applying for infertility problems, the evaluation of men is a process that begins with routine semen analysis and in some cases may require advanced examinations and diagnostic operative procedures. Therefore, the selection of a center with a specialist urologist in this field is extremely important.
During the first inspection process, the following parameters are asked and you are asked to provide clear, honest and accurate information about the proper planning of the treatment.
- Duration of infertility (Unprepared duration of pregnancy despite unprotected sexual intercourse)
- Sexual dysfunctions (Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation)
- Transmitted disorders that may affect reproductive health (Infections, viral diseases, especially high-fever diseases, prostatitis)
- Systemic diseases (Liver, kidney diseases, diabetes, thyroid disorders) and drugs used
- Known anatomical disorders in reproductive organs (undescended testis, varicocele, penis curvature)
- Information about any diagnostic or operative procedures (semen analysis, varicocele surgery, orchiectomy)
- Family infertility, hereditary genetic disease history
- Life style (smoking and alcohol use, stress, eating order, working conditions-exposure to toxic substances)
After this verbal evaluation process, if you have not done this before or if you are older than 3 months, you are asked to give an example for semen analysis. The sperm sample to be used for semen analysis is taken after 3-8 days of sexual abstinence. This period is important in terms of obtaining the appropriate sperm number / vitality ratio. According to the abnormalities observed in semen analysis, detailed urology examination, blood tests and advanced semen analysis studies (may be examined in the Andrology laboratory section) may be required.
In the urology examination, the size and location of the testes, the presence and patency of the sperm canals, the presence of enlarged vessels in the scrotum (varicocele) and the prostate gland are examined. Doppler ultrasonographic examination may also be performed in case of suspicion of stenosis or obstruction of the varicocele and sperm channels.
In the case of spermatogenesis (severe oligospermia, cryptozoospermia, azoospermia), blood tests may be required to determine the levels of FSH, LH and testosterone hormone that control spermatogenesis. The results of these tests and their rates to each other can give information about hypogonadism (testosterone production in the testes). The normal values for the aforementioned hormone tests are as follows:
FSH 1.7-12 mlu / ml
LH 1.1-7 mlu / ml
Testosterone 3-10 ng / ml
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, is one of the rare male infertility problems that can be treated with medication that can be treated as a decrease in the production of FSH-LH. An increase in sperm production can be observed in a mean period of 6 months by taking the preparations containing these hormones from the outside. In addition, in order to detect a possible genetic abnormality (such as klinefelter syndrome), a peripheral karyotype analysis and Y chromosome deletion analysis can be requested.