Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy is one of the forms of treatment used in gynaecological cancers (uterus, cervix, vagina), lung cancer, skin cancers, which are common in the world, by bringing the radiation source close to the tumour. This treatment, which can be applied in 3 dimensions, is carried out in a target-oriented manner. Brachytherapy, which is preferred especially in uterine, cervical and vaginal cancers, is used for skin cancer and lung cancer treatment.

Nowadays, brachytherapy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can be applied in 3D with imaging methods based on the section anatomy. The spread of 3-dimensional brachytherapy increases the success and decreases the side effects.


How is brachytherapy applied?

  • Intracavitary brachytherapy: It is the procedure applied to the patient's natural cavities such as uterus, cervix and bronchus by the help of an applicator.
  • Interstitial brachytherapy (Intra-tissue brachytherapy): It is the application made with applicators placed in the tissue or with radioactive sources sent into the needle. Permanent prostate can also be performed as a permanent injection of radioactive sources into the tissue. It is called ultra low dose rate (ULDR) brachytherapy.
  • Contact brachytherapy: It is a type of brachytherapy that is applied to superficial tissues or in which radioactive sources or radiation sources are used, as in the superficial intraoperative radiotherapy method. During the procedure, the method of removing other organs known as Intraoperative Radiation Therapy (IORT) is applied.  

3D Brachytherapy in Gynecological Tumors

In the treatment of gynecologic cancers by physicians in different disciplines, the application of radioactive sources to the region to be irradiated has a very important role. The most common use of brachytherapy in the world is gynecologic cancers. Brachytherapy can be used as a single treatment method in patients with uterine cancers (endometryium), cervical cancers and vaginal cancers with external irradiation in postoperative or non-operative patients.

Especially in recent years, brachytherapy applications are developing from 2D methods to 3D methods. Based on the information from computed tomography and MRI, 3D brachytherapy applications can contribute to the successful treatment of gynecologic cancers, while maintaining the proper protection of the surrounding healthy tissues (such as the bladder, rectum, sigmoid). This means treatment with less side effects.
 

Skin Brachytherapy (With Leipzig Applicator)

Brachytherapy is successfully used in the treatment of early stage skin squamous and basal cell carcinoma with appropriate surface and depth. Especially in tumors located around the face, surgery is usually less common in the use of brachytherapy. Patients with early-onset skin cancer, especially those who are considered suitable by the plastic surgery physician, can be treated with brachytherapy.
 

3D Brachytherapy in Lung (Bronchus) Cancers

In radiotherapy of lung cancers, brachytherapy can be performed by the chest diseases team and the tubes placed in the main airways.
 

Applicator Types

In brachytherapy, a variety of auxiliary devices, called lan applicators radyo, are used to bring the radioactive source closer to the patient's area to be irradiated. Placing these applicators is often painless, but may sometimes require anesthesia.
 

How is brachytherapy applied in gynaecological tumours?

In brachytherapy, which is preferred in gynaecological tumours, the radioactive source is brought close to the area to be irradiated. With this method, which is widely used today, there is a high chance of successful results in many patients who are not suitable for surgery in cervical, vaginal and uterine cancers or in the postoperative treatment process. The application performed according to the patient's MRI and computed tomography results makes it possible to preserve intact tissues (rectum, bladder, sigmoid). The application, which offers treatment with minimum side effects, is decided by specialist doctors and surgeons.


What is skin brachytherapy?

Skin brachytherapy, applied with the Leipzig applicator, is preferred in early stage basal cell cancers that is suitable in terms of depth and surface, and in skin squamous treatment. The risk of cosmetic damage to the method, which is generally applied for tumours located around the face, is low. Successful results can be obtained with skin brachytherapy performed by plastic surgeons in patients with early stage skin cancer.


How is brachytherapy applied in lung cancers?

In radiotherapy, a tube is placed in the main airways with the preferred application for lung cancer patients who are not suitable for external irradiation method. Brachytherapy application performed with this is 3 dimensional.


Which applicators are used in brachytherapy?

Applicators are instruments preferred for bringing the radioactive resource to the irradiation area of the patient. The placement of these tools used in the treatment of brachytherapy is usually completed without pain. It can also be performed under anaesthesia in some patients.


How to apply brachytherapy in prostate cancer?

In the Liv Hospital Radiation Oncology Clinic, the method of brachytherapy, which is preferred for the suitable patients by specialist doctors in the field of radiation oncology, makes it possible to eliminate the tumour with minimal side effects. It is the application used in patients with limited organs of prostate cancer in patients who are not suitable for surgery. During the procedure, the cancerous tissue is not from the outside, but directly into the prostate. In this way, without any damage to the environmental tissues, target -oriented treatment planning is made. The application is performed with HDR (high dose) under the guidance of real -time transrectal ultrasound. In some patients, brachytherapy can be performed in addition to Ig-IMRT, called external irradiation method.


What are the advantages of prostate brachytherapy?

  • It is a target -oriented treatment method.
  • Shortens the duration of radiotherapy.
  • To encounter urinary tract narrowness or urinary incontinence is unlikely.
  • It makes it possible to protect the near-by tissues and organs.
  • It may shorten the hormone treatment process.
  • The risk of bleeding is low and is usually performed as a single session.
  • Side effects are low.


To whom prostate brachytherapy can be applied?

It is an application performed on patients diagnosed with high and medium-risk prostate cancer in addition to their IG-IMRT, external, treatment. It can also be preferred in patients with low risk and who are not suitable for selected operations. It can also be used as focal radiotherapy in some patients who have previously received radiotherapy and there is relapse.


What are the advantages of 4 -dimensional high dose prostate brachytherapy?

There will be no radioactive remains in the patient with the application, and so the process of returning to daily life is fast. Since it is a real -time visualization, the finalization and effectiveness of the process is high. Since there won’t be a case of radioactive resource left, the resources do not have the potential to replace. The process is completed by removing the needles, because it is a method applied by spinal or general anaesthesia

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