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Chronic Kidney Diseases

Oluşturma Tarihi: 19.11.2023 22:36 | Son Güncelleme: 21.11.2023 08:52

Chronic Kidney Disease


The kidneys, though often unsung heroes, play an indispensable role in our body's intricate orchestra of functions. These bean-shaped powerhouses quietly filter waste, regulate fluid balance, and maintain a stable environment crucial for optimal health. However, when their function wanes due to Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), the ripple effects can be profound. CKD, a progressive condition, silently undermines these vital organs' efficiency over time, posing significant health risks. Understanding the significance of kidneys in our physiology and comprehending the impact of CKD on this intricate system is pivotal in appreciating the gravity of this condition.

What is Chronic Kidney Disease?

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a progressive impairment of kidney function that stealthily undermines the body's waste-filtering abilities. This condition arises when the kidneys endure prolonged damage, leading to a gradual decline in their performance. Causes such as high blood pressure, diabetes, prolonged urinary tract infections, and certain inherited conditions pose substantial risks, gradually compromising the kidneys' efficiency. These essential organs are always under strain from high blood pressure, which makes it harder for them to filter waste and keep the right balance of fluids in the body. Understanding these root causes is fundamental in comprehending CKD's onset and progression, highlighting the critical importance of proactive management and preventive measures.

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Chronic Kidney Disease Symptoms

Chronic Kidney Disease Symptoms

Symptoms of chronic kidney disease can take many different forms, though often subtle in its initial stages, signifying a gradual decline in kidney function. Fatigue, persistent swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet, and alterations in urination patterns, such as increased frequency or changes in urine color, can be early indicators. These symptoms, while seemingly innocuous, hold pivotal significance as red flags for potential stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Treatments targeted at reducing the course of the illness and minimizing its consequences can be started immediately with an early diagnosis. Regular monitoring of symptoms and kidney function assists healthcare providers in tailoring personalized care plans.

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Chronic Kidney Disease Stages

Chronic Kidney Disease Stages

There are five distinct stages of chronic kidney disease, categorized based on the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), a measure of kidney function.

Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 1: Kidney Damage

  • GFR above 90 ml/min
  • Often asymptomatic, but initial signs of kidney damage may appear.

Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 2: Mild Decline

  • GFR between 60-89 ml/min
  • Still asymptomatic in most cases, some individuals may experience mild symptoms like fatigue or slight swelling.

Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3: Moderate Decline

  • GFR between 30-59 ml/min
  • Symptoms become more noticeable: fatigue, swelling, changes in urination.

Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 4: Severe Decline

  • GFR between 15-29 ml/min
  • Symptoms exacerbate significantly: profound fatigue, severe swelling, and increased complications.

Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 5: Kidney Failure (End-Stage)

  • GFR below 15 ml/min or requiring dialysis
  • Profound symptoms often include nausea, breathlessness, confusion, and drastic bodily imbalances.

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Chronic Kidney Disease ICD 10 For Diagnosis

The International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10), employs specific codes, notably the N18 series, to categorize Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). These alphanumeric codes delineate CKD's various stages and associated complications, enabling precise diagnosis. Healthcare professionals utilize these codes to document the severity, progression, and underlying causes of CKD, aiding in patient assessment and treatment strategies. The N18 codes, ranging from N18.1 to N18.9, provide a systematic framework for clinicians, facilitating comprehensive patient care and guiding appropriate interventions for each stage.

Chronic Kidney Disease Treatments Stages

Chronic kidney disease treatment spans various stages and involves a variety of strategies to reduce discomfort and delay the illness's development.

Managing CKD Progression through Lifestyle Changes:

  • Dietary Modifications: A balanced diet with controlled salt, protein, and potassium intake to reduce strain on the kidneys.
  • Regular Exercise: Encouraging physical activity to maintain overall health and manage associated conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes.
  • Smoking Cessation: Eliminating smoking which can exacerbate kidney damage and cardiovascular risks.

Medical Interventions:

  • Chronic Kidney Disease Medication: Prescribed medications to manage blood pressure, control cholesterol levels, and treat complications like anemia.
  • Medications to Slow Progression: Drugs targeting underlying CKD causes, such as medications to manage diabetes or immune system disorders.


  • Types of Dialysis: When the kidneys are unable to remove toxins from the blood, patients might get hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
  • Procedures and Considerations: Regular sessions at dialysis centers or home-based treatment, each with specific procedures and requirements.

Kidney Transplantation:

  • Process: Surgical procedure involving the replacement of a failed kidney with a healthy donor kidney.
  • Eligibility and Post-Transplant treatment: predetermined standards for eligibility, thorough assessment procedures, ongoing immunosuppressive medicine, and yearly physicals to avoid organ rejection and track kidney function are all part of the lifetime post-transplant treatment.

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Prevention and Management Strategies

Prevention and management of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) are anchored in proactive measures and regular monitoring. Stage 3 chronic kidney disease, a critical juncture, often presents subtle symptoms but signifies a moderate decline in kidney function. Considering its prevalence, regular check-ups become paramount in identifying and addressing CKD at its early stages. Regular screenings provide an essential opportunity for immediate action, particularly for those with elevated risks such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or a family record of kidney disease. These check-ups enable healthcare providers to assess kidney function through simple tests, allowing for early detection of abnormalities.

* The Editorial Board of Liv Hospital has contributed to the publication of this content.
* The contents on our website are for informational purposes only. Please consult your physician for diagnosis and treatment. The content of this page does not include information on medicinal health care at Liv Hospital.

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