Treatment Methods

Fertilization (Insemination)

This is the process of placing the sperm directly into the uterus using pills or needles, by first preparing the woman to produce 1-2 eggs with drugs, and then selecting them by special methods just before the egg is cracked. For the couple to be inseminated, the woman has to be under 38 and have a normal ovarian reserve, have both tubes open, have a normal uterus, and the man's sperm tests should meet the minimum count and motility values.

IVF (Classic IVF)

This is the process of fertilizing the eggs collected from the woman by bringing them together with sperms taken from the man under special laboratory conditions. For IVF, a certain amount of live sperm is needed from the man. In this method, a certain number of sperm is placed the same environment with each egg, and it is expected to be self-fertilized without any intervention. This is a method that is gradually less used in modern IVF clinics, and the success ratios are lower than microinjection.


ICSI (Microinjection)

In this process, embryos are formed by injecting sperm individually to each mature egg that is collected. Therefore, even men with very low sperm count can have children through this method. Another advantage of the microinjection method is that more of the collected mature eggs are fertilized compared to IVF.

TESE Operation

The absence of sperm cells in semen analysis is called "azoospermia." Simple aspiration methods can be used to obtain sperm when azoospermia is due to an obstruction in the ducts. In azoospermia where the ducts are open, the process of searching for sperm inside the testis under microscope is called TESE. This procedure is performed under anesthesia and is more sensitive than multiple biopsy methods that don't use a microscope. Since ducts in which sperm can be found are detected by microscopy, the success rate is higher. Furthermore, the rate of complications that may occur in men with microTESE surgery is minimum.

There are 2 possible causes of azoospermia

Obstruction-induced: In this case, although there is no important problem in the sperm production of the man, it is possible that the sperm cannot pass from the testis to the semen due to an obstruction in the duct between the testis and the penis due to a previous operation or infection, or the congenital absence of the ducts.
Non-obstruction-induced: This is the more common group. Although there is usually no disorder in the ducts in such men, the problem is caused by insufficient sperm production. Here too, the cause may be a hormonal, genetic or previous infection. In most cases, there is no reason that explains the situation.

IVF Treatment Steps

  • Evaluation of infertile couple, gynecological and urological examinations
  • Selection and planning of the treatment method
  • Drug-induced development of eggs (Ovulation induction)
  • Egg collection under anesthesia (OPU procedure)
  • Sperm fertilization of eggs (ICSI)
  • Embryo transfer

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