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Freezing Processes

Freezing Processes

The process of temporarily stopping the viability of cells is called freezing (cryopreservation), and the process of restoring their viability is called thawing (thaw).
Freezing Processes

The process of temporarily stopping the viability of cells is called freezing (cryopreservation), and the process of restoring their viability is called thawing (thaw). In the in vitro fertilization laboratory, both male and female gonad cells and the embryos obtained after the procedure are frozen.

Frezing Procedures at Liv Hospital


Liv Hospital is a healthcare institution that offers a range of services on reproductive health, and these services include procedures such as embryo freezing, egg freezing (oocyte cryopreservation) and sperm freezing. These freezing processes offer an important option for individuals who want to postpone their chances of reproduction for various reasons or for people who are at risk of losing their reproductive abilities due to health problems. Liv Hospital aims to provide reliable and effective reproductive health services to its patients with modern technology and an expert team.

Freezing and thawing processes are controlled by legal regulations. The storage period of all frozen materials is 5 years. Extension of this period may be possible through petitions submitted to the District Health Directorates.

In order to protect living cells, embryos or tissues at very low temperatures (-196 °C), they are coated with special protective substances (cryoprotectants) and frozen to become glass (vitrification).

Sperm Freezing


Sperm freezing is performed in the andrology laboratory. Both semen samples obtained through ejaculation and testicular sperm samples obtained by operative methods (TESE, TESA) can be frozen. A loss of viability of around 30 percent in sperm freezing-thawing processes is considered normal.

Sperm freezing may be necessary before obtaining sperm by surgical methods, before treatments that damage gonad cells such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, before surgeries that will cause loss of reproductive functions (removal of testicles, etc.) and in cases of very low sperm count (cryptozoospermia).

Cryopreserved cells; If the person does not renew the annual protocol, upon his request, or if he dies, it is recorded and destroyed under the supervision of an officer determined by the Provincial Health Directorate.

Freezing sperm provides great convenience for the male patient, especially in cases of azoospermia, in possible repeated in vitro fertilization attempts, and eliminates the stress of a new operation.

Embryo Freezing


Embryos can be frozen at any level from the 2-cell stage to the blastocyst stage by the vitrification method. According to comparative scientific studies on pregnancies after the transfer of frozen-thawed embryos; So far, no complications that may occur during pregnancy or an increased risk to the health of babies after birth have been observed compared to fresh embryo transfer.

In Which Situations Is Embryo Freezing Required?

  • After embryo transfer, remaining good quality embryos
  • Clinical situations that occur during the treatment process and where embryo transfer may negatively affect the patient's health (OHSS risk)
  • Clinical conditions that occur during the treatment process and may negatively affect the chance of success (insufficient uterine thickening, early progesterone increase, polyps or cysts)
  • PGT applications where the delivery of genetic examination results will take longer
  • Non-treatment health problems, emergencies, social problems that require postponing the transfer
  • Oocyte (Egg) Freezing
  • In recent years, successful results have been achieved with the vitrification method in egg freezing studies and it has begun to be applied as a standard egg freezing method. In egg freezing, the same solutions and carriers as in embryo freezing are used, but the freezing protocol is different. Egg freezing is performed on the day of egg collection, approximately 2 hours after the procedure. This is the ideal time for a successful freezing.

Egg freezing can be applied within the conditions and limitations determined by the Ministry of Health.

In Which Cases Is Egg Freezing Necessary?


  • Before treatments that damage gonad cells, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Before surgeries that will cause loss of reproductive functions (such as ovarian removal).
  • If they have a low number of egg cells in their ovaries (Low Ovarian Reserve -DOR) and have not given birth yet, or if their family history of early menopause is documented by a medical board report consisting of three specialist physicians.