Endourology and Stone

Who has Kidney Stones and Why?

In general, metabolic and environmental factors are the most important factors in kidney stone formation. Factors affecting stone formation include heredity, nutrition, gender, age, geography, climate and occupational characteristics. At least 25 percent of patients with stone disease have stone disease in the family. Therefore, family predisposition can be mentioned.

Stone disease in men is more than 3 times more than women. This is because estrogen hormone in women increases the level of citrate, which is the preservative in urine, and decreases the amount of urinary oxalate involved in stone formation. It is more common in mountainous, desert and tropical regions. In some of our regions, the risk of stone disease is 2-3 times higher. It is more common in Southeastern Anatolia, Mediterranean and Black Sea regions. Therefore, geography is a factor affecting both the frequency and type of stone formation. In the summer increases the risk of stones. Contact with the sun also increases the amount of calcium in the urine by increasing the synthesis of vitamin D. The frequency of stone disease is increasing especially in hot environments. For example; agricultural workers, workers working outdoors. The risk of stone formation also increases in people who are working on a desk or who are sedentary or bedridden.


What are the Symptoms of Kidney Stones?

Stone disease usually allows you to consult a doctor by giving a complaint. The most common symptom is pain. As the pain may be in the kidney, the stone may be in the groin or lower depending on its placement in the urinary canals. Sometimes there may be mild muscle pain in the lower back and back areas. Anyone who tries to drop stone from the urinary tract knows that this period can be very painful. The cause of the pain is usually the blockage of the urinary tract. Sudden and nearly complete blockage causes severe stone pain. Kidney stones can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, bleeding in the urine, and sudden deterioration in the urination behavior. Among them; frequent urination, failure to urinate, burning during urination, decrease in urine flow. There are also cases where kidney stones do not give any symptoms. Therefore, regular health checks are important in terms of detecting stones that do not show any symptoms.

What are the Drawbacks if Kidney Stones are not Attented to?

The presence of stones in the kidney can lead to severe pain or other symptoms that can seriously impair one's quality of life. In addition, kidney infection is one of the most important risks that untreated stones can cause. In the presence of infection; high fever, chills, chills may be symptoms. This occurs when the infection affects the kidney. When kidney infection occurs, it can damage kidney tissue. The emergence of infection may also complicate stone therapy. Therefore, the treatment plan should be performed before the kidney infection develops in the presence of stones. If the stone remains in the kidney or urine for a long time without treatment, another risky condition that it may cause is impaired renal function. Since it is not treated on time, kidney or urinary canal stones can be found that lead to the loss of the whole kidney.

What are the Conditions that Increase the Susceptibility to Kidney Stone Disease?

Since kidney stone disease can often be repeated, it is necessary to determine the situations that increase the susceptibility and take measures against it. The tendency to kidney stone may increase in the following cases:
  • Early onset of the disease (under 25 years)
  • Frequent urinary tract inflammation
  • Some types of stones (infectious stones, uric acid or urate stones, ie gout)
  • Children and adolescents
  • Genetic diseases (Cystinuria, primary hyperoxaluria, renal tubular acidosis type I, xanthine, cystic fibrosis)
  • Hyperparathyroidism (overwork of the parathyroid gland)
  • Intestinal diseases and previous gastrointestinal surgery (bowel disturbance, previous gastrointestinal surgery, Crohn's disease, colitis and some metabolic diseases)
  • Family history
  • Finding only one kidney
  • Two-sided stone burden
  • Stone remains in the kidney after stone treatment
  • Some drugs (such as excess calcium and vitamin D supplementation, some diuretics, antacids, goiter medications)
  • Anatomical disorders in kidney or urinary canals
  • Low urine citrate (citrate has a preventive effect on stone formation)
  • Changes in urine pH (too low or too high)

In Which Situations is Intervention Necessary?

Interventional therapies are planned regardless of the size of the stone. Stones placed in small chambers called calyx in the kidney, which do not obstruct the urinary tract and cause no disturbance to the patient, can be followed for a while; however, the general opinion is that it is more appropriate to treat such stones by selecting one of the least risky methods for the patient.

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